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Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Control of Nuclear Dual-Use Items and Related Technologies Export
1.1. Flow-forming machines and spin-forming machines capable of flow-forming functions, and mandrels, as follows, and specially designed software therefor:
(a) (i) Having three or more rollers (active or guiding); and
(ii) According to the manufacturer's technical specification can be equipped with "numerical control" units or a computer control;
(b) Rotor-forming mandrels designed to form cylindrical rotors of inside diameter between 75 mm (3 in.) and 400 mm (16 in.).
Note: This entry includes machines which have only a single roller designed to deform metal plus two auxiliary rollers which support the mandrel, but do not participate directly in the deformation process.
1.2. "Numerical control" units, "numerical controlled" machine tools, and specially designed "software" as follows:
(a) Note : For "Numerical control" units controlled by its associated software, see section (c)(2).
(b) Machine tools, as follows, for removing or cutting metals, ceramics, or composites, which, according to the manufacturer's technical specifications, can be equipped with electronic devices for simultaneous "contouring control" in two or more axes:
(1) Machine tools for turning, that have "positioning accuracies" with all compensations available less (better) than 0.006 mm along any linear axis (overall positioning) for machines capable of machining diameters greater than 35 mm.
Note: Bar machines (Swissturn), limited to machining only bar feed thru. are excluded if maximum bar diameter is equal to or less than 42 mm and there is no capability of mounting chucks. Machines may have drilling and/or milling capabilities for machining parts with diameters less than 42 mm.
(2) Machine tools for milling, having any of the following characteristics:
(a) "Positioning accuracies" with all compensations available are less (better) than 0.006 mm along any linear axis (overall positioning); or
(b) Two or more contouring rotary axes.
Note: This does not control milling machines having the following characteristics:
(a) X-axis travel greater than 2 m; and
(b) Overall "positioning accuracy" on the x-axis more (worse) than 0.030 mm.
(3) Machine tools for grinding, having any of the following characteristics:
(a) "Positioning accuracies" with all compensations available are less (better) than 0.004 mm along any linear axis (overall positioning); or
(b) Having two or more contouring rotary axes.
Note: The following grinding machines are excluded:
(a) Cylindrical external, internal, and external-internal grinding machines having all the following characteristics:
(1) Limited to cylindrical grinding
(2) A Maximum workpiece outside diameter or length of 150 mm
(3) Not more than two axes that can be coordinated simultaneously for "contouring control"; and
(4) No contouring axis
(b) Jig grinders with axes limited to x, y, c, and a, where c axis is used to maintain the grinding wheel normal to the work surface, and the a axis is configured to grind barrel cams.
(c) Tool or cutter grinding, machines with "software" specially designed for the production of tools or cutters; or
(d) Crankshaft or camshaft grinding machines.
(4) Non-wire type Electrical Discharge Machines (EDM) that have two or more contouring rotary axes and that can be coordinated simultaneously for "contouring control".
Note: Guaranteed "Positioning accuracy" levels instead of individual test protocols may be used for each machine tool model using the agreed ISO test procedure.
1. Not counted in the total number of contouring rotary axes are secondary parallel contouring rotary axes the center line of which is parallel to the primary rotary axis.
2. Rotary axes do not necessarily have to rotate over 360 degrees. A rotary axis can be driven by a linear device, e.g., a screw or a rack-and-pinion.
(1) "Software" specially designed or modified for the "development", "production", or "use" of equipment controlled by subcategories (a) or (b) above.
(2) "Software" for any combination of electronic devices or system enabling such device(s) to function as a "numerical control" unit capable of controlling 5 or more interpolating axes that can be coordinated simultaneously for "contouring control".
Note 1: - "Software" is controlled whether exported separately or residing in a "numerical control" unit or any electronic device or system.
Note 2: - "Software" specially designed or modified by the manufacturers of the control unit or machine tool to operate an uncontrolled machine tool is not controlled.
1.3. Dimensional inspection machines, devices, or systems, as follows, specially designed software therefor.
(a) Computer controlled or numerically controlled dimensional inspection machines having both of the following characteristics:
(1) two or more axes; and
(2) a one-dimensional length "measurement uncertainty" equal to or less (better) than (1.25+ L/1000)¦Ìm tested with a probe of an "accuracy" of less (better) than 0.2¦Ìm (L is the measured length in millimeters) ;
(b) Linear and angular displacement measuring devices, as follows:
(1) linear measuring instruments having any of the following characteristics:
(i) non-contact type measuring systems with a "resolution" equal to or less (better) than 0.2¦Ìm within a measuring range up to 0.2 mm;
(ii) linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) systems having both of the following characteristics:
(A) "linearity" equal to or less (better) than 0.1% within a measuring range up to 5 mm; and
(B) drift equal to or less (better) than 0.1 % per day at a standard ambient test room temperature ?K; or
(iii) measuring systems that have both of the following characteristics:
(A) contain a "laser", and
(B) maintain for at least 12 hours, over a temperature range of ?K around a standard temperature and a standard pressure:
(1) a "resolution" over their full scale of 0.1¦Ìm or better. and
(2) with a "measurement uncertainty" equal to or less (better) than (0.2+L/2000)¦Ìm (L is the measured length in millimeters);
except measuring interferometer systems, without closed or open loop feedback. containing a "laser" to measure slide movement errors of machine tools, dimensional inspection machines, or similar equipment;
(2) angular measuring instruments having an "angular position deviation" equal to or less (better) than 0.00025?
Note: The sub-item (b) (2) of this item does not control optical instruments, such as autocollimators, using collimated light to detect angular displacement of a mirror.
(c) Systems for simultaneously linear-angular inspection of hemishells, having both of the following characteristics:
(1) "measurement uncertainty" along any linear axis equal to or less (better) than 3.5 ¦Ìm per 5 mm; and
(2) "angular position deviation" equal to or less than 0.02?
Note: Specially designed software for the systems described in paragraph (c) of this item includes software for simultaneous measurements of wall thickness and contour.
1. "Measurement uncertainty"
-- The characteristic parameter which specifies in what range around the output value the correct value of the measurable variable lies with a confidence level of 95%. It includes the uncorrected systematic deviations, the uncorrected backlash, and the random deviations.
-- The least increment of a measuring device; on digital instruments, the least significant bit.
--(Usually measured in terms of non linearity) is the maximum deviation of the actual characteristic (average of upscale and downscale readings), positive or negative from a straight line so positioned as to equalize and minimize the maximum deviations.
4. "Angular position deviation"
-- The maximum difference between angular position and the actual, very accurately measured angular position after the workpiece mount of the table has been turned out of its initial position.
1.4. Vacuum or controlled environment (inert gas) induction furnaces capable of operation above 850 ¡æ and having induction coils 600 mm (24 in.) or less in diameter, and designed for power inputs of 5 kW or more; and power supplies specially designed therefor with a specified power output of 5 kW or more.
Technical Note: This entry does not control furnaces designed for the processing of semiconductor wafers.
1.5. "Isostatic presses" capable of achieving a maximum working pressure of 69 MPa or greater having a chamber cavity with an inside diameter in excess of 152 mm and specially designed dies, molds, controls or "specially designed software" therefor.
(1) The inside chamber dimension is that of the chamber in which both the working temperature and the working pressure are achieved and does not include fixtures. That dimension will be the smaller of either the inside diameter of the pressure chamber or the inside diameter of the insulated furnace chamber, depending on which of the two chambers is located inside the other.
(2) "Isostatic Presses"
-- Equipment capable of pressurizing a closed cavity through various media (gas, liquid, solid particles, etc.) to create equal pressure in all directions within the cavity upon a workpiece or material.
1.6. "Robots" or "end-effectors" having either of the following characteristics; and "specially designed software" or specially designed controllers therefor:
(a) Specially designed to comply with national safety standards applicable to handling high explosives (for example, meeting electrical code ratings for high explosives); or
(b) Specially designed or rated as radiation hardened to withstand greater than 5 x 104 grays (Silicon) (5 x 106 rad (Silicon)) without operational degradation.
A manipulation mechanism, which may be of the continuous path or of the point-to-point variety, may use "sensors," and has all of the following characteristics:
(a) is multifunctional;
(b) is capable of positioning or orienting material, parts, tools, or special devices through variable movements in three -dimensional space;
(c) incorporates three or more closed or open loop servo-devices which may include stepping motors; and
(d) has "user-accessible programmability" by means of teach/playback method or by means of an electronic computer which may be a programmable logic controlled, i.e.. without mechanical intervention.
The above definition does not include the following devices:
(a)Manipulation mechanisms which are only manually/teleoperator controllable;
(b)Fixed sequence manipulation mechanisms which are automated moving devices operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program is mechanically limited by fixed stops, such as pins or cams. The sequence of motions and the selection of paths or angles are not variable or changeable by mechanical, electronic, or electrical means;
(c)Mechanically controlled variable sequence manipulation mechanisms which are automated moving devices operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program is mechanically limited by fixed, but adjustable, stops such as pins or cams. The sequence of motions and the selection of paths or angles are variable within the fixed program pattern. Variations or modifications of the program pattern (e.g., changes of pins or exchanges of cams) in one or more motion axes are accomplished only through mechanical operations;
(d)Non-servo-controlled variable sequence manipulation mechanisms which are automated moving devices, operating according to mechanically fixed programmed motions. The program is variable but the sequence proceeds only by the binary signal from mechanically fixed electrical binary devices or adjustable stops;
(e)Stacker cranes defined as Cartesian coordinate manipulator systems manufactured as an integral part of a vertical array of storage bins and designed to access the contents of those bins for storage or retrieval.
(2)"End-effectors", "End-effectors" include grippers, "active tooling units," and any other tooling that is attached to the baseplate on the end of a "robot" manipulator arm.
(3)The definition in (a) above is not designed to control robots specially designed for nonnuclear industrial applications such as automobile paint-spraying booths.
1.7.Vibration test systems, equipment, components and software therefor, as follows:
(a) Electrodynamic vibration test systems, employing feedback or closed loop control techniques and incorporating a digital controller, capable of vibrating at 10 g RMS or more between 20 Hz and 2000 Hz and imparting forces of 50 kN (11,250 lbs) measured 'bare table', or greater;
(b)Digital controllers, combined with "specially designed software" for vibration testing, with a real-time bandwidth greater than 5 kHz and being designed for use with the systems controlled in a. above;
(c)Vibration thrusters (shaker units), with or without associated amplifiers, capable of imparting a force of 50 kN (11,250 lbs), measured 'bare table', or greater, which are usable for the systems controlled in a. above;
(d)Test piece support structures and electronic units designed to combine multiple shaker units into a complete shaker system capable of providing an effective combined force of 50 kN, measured 'bare table', or greater, which are usable for the systems controlled in a. above;
(e)"Specially designed software" for use with the systems controlled in a. above or for the electronic units controlled in d. above.
1.8.Vacuum and controlled atmosphere metallurgical melting and casting furnaces as follows; and specially configured computer control and monitoring systems and "specially designed software" therefor:
(a)Arc remelt and casting furnaces with consumable electrode capacities between
1000 cm ?and 20,000 cm3 and capable of operating with melting temperatures above 1700 ¡æ,
(b)Electron beam melting and plasma atomization and melting furnaces with a power of 50 kW or greater and capable of operating with melting temperatures above 1200 ¡æ.
2.1. Aluminum alloys capable of an ultimate tensile strength of 460 Mpa (0.46 x 109 N/m2 ) or more at 293 K (20¡æ), in the form of tubes or cylindrical solid forms (including forgings) with an outside diameter of more than 75 mm (3 in.).
Technical Note: The phrase "capable of" encompasses aluminum alloys before or after heat treatment.
2.2. Beryllium metal, alloys containing more than 50% beryllium by weight, beryllium compounds, and manufactures thereof,
(a) Metal windows for X-ray machines, or for bore-hole logging devices;
(b) Oxide shapes in fabricated or semi-fabricated forms specially designed for electronic component parts or as substrates for electronic circuits;
(c) Beryl (silicate of beryllium and aluminum) in the form of emeralds or aquamarines.
Technical Note: This entry includes waste and scrap containing beryllium as defined above.
2.3.High-purity (99.99% or greater) bismuth with very low silver content (less than 10 parts per million).
2.4.Boron and boron compounds, mixtures, and loaded materials in which the boron- 10 isotope is more than 20% by weight of the total boron content.
2.5.Calcium (high purity) containing both less than 1000 parts per million by weight of metallic impurities other than magnesium and less than 10 parts per million of boron.
2.6.Chlorine Trifluoride (CIF3).
2.7.Crucibles made of materials resistant to liquid actinide metals, as follows:
(a)Crucibles with a volume of between 150 ml and 8 liters and made of or coated with any of the following materials having a purity of 98% or greater:
(i)Calcium fluoride (CaF2)
(ii)Calcium zirconate (metazirconate) (CaZrO3)
(iii)Cerium sulfide (Ce2S3 )
(iv)Erbium oxide (erbia) (Er2O3)
(v)Hafnium oxide (hafnia) (HfO2)
(vi)Magnesium oxide (MgO)
(vii)Nitrided niobium-titanium-tungsten alloy (approximately 50% Nb, 30% Ti, 20% W)
(viii)Yttrium oxide (yttria) (Y2O3 )
(ix)Zirconium oxide (zirconia) (ZrO2)
(b)Crucibles with a volume of between 50 ml and 2 liters and made of or lined with tantalum, having a purity of 99.9% or greater.
(c)Crucibles with a volume of between 50 ml and 2 liters and made of or lined with tantalum (having, a purity of 98% or greater) coated with tantalum carbide, nitride, or boride (or any combination of these).
2.8.Fibrous or filamentary materials, prepregs and composite structures, as follows:
(a)Carbon or aramid "fibrous or filamentary materials" having a "specific modulus" of 12.7 x 106m or greater or a "specific tensile strength" of 23.5 x 104m or greater, except aramid "fibrous or filamentary materials" having 0.25 percent or more by weight of an ester based fiber surface modifier; or
(b)Glass "fibrous or filamentary materials" having a "specific modulus" of 3.18 x 106m or greater and a "specific tensile strength" of 7.62 x 104m or greater;
(c)Thermoset resin impregnated continuous yarns, rovings, tows or tapes with a width no greater than 15 mm (prepregs), made from carbon or glass "fibrous or filamentary materials" specified in 2.8 (a) or (b);
Note: The resin forms the matrix of the composite.
(d)Composite structures in the form of tubes with an inside diameter of between 75 mm (3 in.) and 400 mm (16 in.) made with any of the "fibrous or filamentary materials" specified in (a) above or carbon prepreg materials specified in (c) above.
(a) For the purpose of this entry, the term "fibrous or filamentary materials" means continuous monofilaments, yarns, rovings, tows or tapes.
(1). A filament or monofilament is the smallest increment of fiber, usually several ¦Ìm in diameter.
(2). A strand is a bundle of filaments (typically over 200) arranged approximately parallel.
(3). A roving is a bundle (typically 12-120) of approximately parallel strands.
(4). A yarn is a bundle of twisted strands.
(5). A tow is a bundle of filaments, usually approximately parallel.
(6). A tape is a material constructed of interlaced or unidirectional filaments, strands, rovings, tows or yarns, etc., usually preimpregnated with resin.
(b) "Specific modulus" is the Young's modulus in N/m2 divided by the specific weight in N/m3 when measured at a temperature of 23?¡æ and a relative humidity of 50 ?5%.
(c) "Specific tensile strength" is the ultimate tensile strength in N/m2 divided by the specific weight in N/m3 when measured at a temperature of 23?¡æ and a relative humidity of 50?5%.
2.9. Metal, alloys, and compounds of hafnium containing more than 60% hafnium by weight and manufactures thereof.
2.10. Lithium enriched in the 6 isotope (6Li) to greater than 7.5 atom percent, alloys, compounds or mixtures containing lithium enriched in the 6 isotope, and products or devices containing any of the foregoing;
except thermoluminescent dosimeters.
Note: The natural occurrence of the 6 isotope in lithium is 7.5 atom percent.
2.11. Magnesium (high purity) containing both less than 200 parts per million by weight of metallic impurities other than calcium and less than 10 parts per million of boron.
2.12. Maraging steel capable of an ultimate tensile strength of 2050 MPa (2.050 x 109 N/m2) (300,000 lb/in.2) or more at 293 K (20¡æ) except forms in which no linear dimension exceeds 75 mm.
Technical Note: The phrase "capable of" encompasses maraging steel before of after heat treatment
2.13. Radium-226, radium-226 compounds, or mixtures containing radium-226, and products or devices containing any of the foregoing;
a. medical applicators;
b. a product or device containing not more than 0.37GBq (l0 millicuries) of radium-226 in any form.
2.14. Titanium alloys capable of an ultimate tensile strength of 900 MPa (0.9 x 109 N/m2 ) (130,500 lb/in.2) or more at 293 K (20 ¡æ) in the form of tubes or cylindrical solid forms (including forgings) with an outside diameter of more than 75 mm (3 in.).
Technical Note: The phrase "capable of" encompasses titanium alloys before or after heat treatment
2.15. Tungsten, as follows: parts made of tungsten, tungsten carbide, or tungsten alloys (greater than 90% tungsten) having a mass greater than 20kg and a hollow cylindrical symmetry (including cylinder segments) with an inside diameter greater than 100 mm (4 in.) but less than 300 mm (12 in.), except parts specifically designed for use as weights or gramma-ray collimators.
2.16. Zirconium with a hafnium content of less than 1 part hafnium to 500 parts zirconium by weight, in the form of metal, alloys containing more than 50% zirconium by weight, and compounds, and manufactures wholly thereof; except zirconium in the form of foil having a thickness not exceeding 0. 10 mm (0.004 in.).
Technical Note: This control applies to waste and scrap containing zirconium as defined here.
2.17. Nickel powder and porous nickel metal, as follows:
(a) Powder with a nickel purity content of 99.0% or greater and a mean particle size of less than 10¦Ìm; except filamentary nickel powders;
Note: Nickel powders which are especially prepared for the manufacture of gaseous diffusion barriers are controlled under the Nuclear Control List.
(b) Porous nickel metal produced from materials controlled by (a); except: single porous nickel metal sheets not exceeding 1000 cm2 per sheet.
Note: This refers to porous metal formed by compacting and sintering the material in (a) to form a metal material with fine pores interconnected throughout the structure.
3. URANIUM ISOTOPE SEPARATION EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS
(Other Than Nuclear Control List Items)
3.1. Electrolytic cells for fluorine production with a production capacity greater than 250g of fluorine per hour.
3.2. Rotor fabrication and assembly equipment and bellows-forming mandrels and dies, as follows:
(a) Rotor assembly equipment for assembly of gas centrifuge rotor tube sections, baffles, and end caps. Such equipment includes precision mandrels, clamps, and shrink fit machines.
(b) Rotor straightening equipment for alignment of gas centrifuge rotor tube sections to a common axis. (Note: Normally such equipment will consist of precision measuring probes linked to a computer that subsequently controls the action of, for example, pneumatic rams used for aligning the rotor tube sections.)
(c) Bellows-forming mandrels and dies for producing single-convolution bellows (bellows made of high-strength aluminum alloys, maraging steel, or high-strength filamentary materials). The bellows have all of the following dimensions:
(1) 75 mm to 400 mm (3 in. to 16 in.) inside diameter;
(2) 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) or more in length; and
(3) single convolution depth more than 2 mm (0.08 in.).
3.3. Centrifugal multiplane balancing machines, fixed or portable, horizontal or vertical, as follows:
(a) Centrifugal balancing machines designed for balancing flexible rotors having a length of 600 mm or more and having all of the following characteristics:
(1) a swing or journal diameter of 75 mm or more;
(2) mass capability of from 0.9 to 23 kg (2 to 50 lb.); and
(3) capable of balancing speed of revolution more than 5000 rpm;
(b) Centrifugal balancing machines designed for balancing hollow cylindrical rotor components and having all of the following characteristics:
(1) a journal diameter of 75 mm or more;
(2) mass capability of from 0.9 to 23 kg (2 to 50 lb.);
(3) capable of balancing to a residual imbalance of 0.010 kg mm/kg per plane or better; and
(4) belt drive type;and "specially designed software" therefor.
3.4. Filament winding machines in which the motions for positioning, wrapping, and winding fibers are coordinated and programmed in two or more axes, specially designed to fabricate composite structures or laminates from fibrous and filamentary materials and capable of winding cylindrical rotors of diameter between 75 mm (3 in.) and 400 mm (16 in.) and lengths of 600 mm (24 in.) or greater; coordinating and programming controls therefor; precision mandrels; and "specially designed software" therefor.
3.5. Frequency changers (also known as converters or inverters) or generators having all of the following characteristics:
(a) A multiphase output capable of providing a power of 40 W or more;
(b) Capable of operating in the frequency range between 600 and 2000 Hz;
(c) Total harmonic distortion below 10%; and
(d) Frequency control better than 0.1%.
except such frequency changers specially designed or prepared to supply "motor stators" (as defined below) and having the characteristics listed in (b) and (d) above, together with a total harmonic distortion of less than 2% and an efficiency of greater than 80%.
-- specially designed or prepared ring-shaped stators for high-speed multiphase AC hysteresis (or reluctance) motors for synchronous operation within a vacuum in the frequency range of 600 - 2000 Hz and a power range of 50 - 1000 VA. The stators consist of multiphase windings on a laminated low-loss iron core comprising thin layers typically 2.0 mm (0.008 in.) thick or less.
3.6. Lasers, laser amplifiers, and oscillators as follows:
(a) Copper vapor lasers with 40 W or greater average output power operating at wavelengths between 500 nm and 600 nm;
(b) Argon ion lasers with greater than 40 W average output power operating at wavelengths between 400 nm and 515 nm;
(c) Neodymium-doped (other than glass) lasers as follows:
(1) having an output wavelength between 1000 nm and 1100 nm, being pulse-excited and Q-switched with a pulse duration equal to or greater than 1ns, and having either of the following:
(a) A single-transverse mode output having an average output power exceeding 40 W;
(b) A multiple-transverse mode output having an average output power exceeding 50 W;
(2) operating at a wavelength between 1000 nm and 1100 nm and incorporating frequency doubling, giving an output wavelength between 500 nm and 550 nm with an average power at the doubled frequency (new wavelength) of greater than 40 W;
(d) Tunable pulsed single-mode dye oscillators capable of an average power output of greater than 1 W, a repetition rate greater than 1 kHz, a pulse less than 100 ns, and a wavelength between 300 nm and 800 nm;
(e) Tunable pulsed dye laser amplifiers and oscillators, except single mode oscillators. with an average power output of greater than 30W, a repetition rate greater than 1 kHz, a pulse width less than 100ns, and a wavelength between 300nm and 800nm;
(f) Alexandrite lasers with a bandwidth of 0.005nm or less, a repetition rate of greater than 125 Hz, and an average power output greater than 30 W operating at wavelengths between 720nm and 800nm;
(g) Pulsed carbon dioxide lasers with a repetition rate greater than 250 Hz, an average power output of greater than 500W, and a pulse of less than 200ns operating at wavelengths between 9000nm and 11,000nm;
N.B. This specification is not intended to control the higher power typically 1 to 5 kW) industrial CO2 lasers used in applications such as cutting and welding, as these latter lasers are either continuous wave or are pulsed with a pulse width more than 200ns.
(h) Pulsed excimer lasers (XeF, XeCl, KrF) with a repetition rate greater than 250 Hz and an average power output of greater than 500 W operating at wavelengths of between 240 nm and 360 nm;
(i) Para-hydrogen Raman shifters designed to operate at 16 ¦Ìm output wavelength and at a repetition rate greater than 250 Hz.
Technical Note: Machine tools, measuring devices, and associated technology that have the potential for use in the nuclear industry are controlled under items 1.2 and 1.3 of this list.
3.7. Mass spectrometers capable of measuring ions of 230 atomic mass units or greater and having a resolution of better than 2 parts in 230, and ion sources therefor as follows:
(a) Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP/MS);
(b) Glow discharge mass spectrometers (GDMS);
(c) Thermal ionization mass spectrometers (TIMS);
(d) Electron bombardment mass spectrometers which have a source chamber constructed from or lined with or plated with materials resistant to UF6;
(e) Molecular beam mass spectrometers as follows:
(1) which have a source chamber constructed from or lined with or plated with stainless steel or molybdenum and have a cold trap capable of cooling to 193 K(-80 ¡æ) or less; or
(2) which have a source chamber constructed from or lined with or plated with materials resistant to UF6; or
(f) Mass spectrometers equipped with a microfluorination ion source designed for use with actinides or actinide fluorides;
except specially designed or prepared magnetic or quadrupole mass spectrometers capable of taking "on-line" samples of feed, product, or tails from UF6 gas streams and having all of the following characteristics:
(1) Unit resolution for mass greater than 320;
(2)Ion sources constructed of or lined with nichrome or monel or nickel-plated;
(3) Electron bombardment ionization sources;
(4) Having a collector system suitable for isotopic analysis.
3.8. Pressure transducers which are capable of measuring absolute pressure at any point in the range 0 to 13 kPa, with pressure sensing elements made of or protected by nickel, nickel alloys with more than 60% nickel by weight, aluminum or aluminum alloys as follows:
1) transducers with a full scale of less than l3 kPa and an accuracy of better than ?% of full scale;
2) transducers with a full scale of 13 kPa or greater and an accuracy of better than ?30 Pa.
1. Pressure transducers are devices that convert pressure measurements into an electrical signal.
2. For the purposes of this entry, "accuracy" includes non-linearity, hysteresis and repeatability at ambient temperature.
3.9. Valves 5 mm (0.2 in.) or greater in nominal size, with a bellows seal, wholly made of or lined with aluminum, aluminum alloy, nickel, or alloy containing 60% or more nickel, either manually or automatically operated.
Note: For valves with different inlet and outlet diameter, the nominal size parameter above refers to the smallest diameter.
3.10. Superconducting solenoidal electromagnets with all of the following characteristics:
(a) capable of creating magnetic fields of more than 2 teslas (20 kilogauss);
(b) with an L/D (length divided by inner diameter) greater than 2;
(c) with an inner diameter of more than 300 mm; and
(d) with a magnetic field uniform to better than 1% over the central 50% of the inner volume.
Note: The item does not cover magnets specially designed for and exported as parts of medical nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging systems. It is understood that the wording "as part of" does not necessarily mean physical part in the same shipment. Separate shipments from different sources are allowed, provided the related export documents clearly specify the "part of"relationship.
3.11. Vacuum pumps with an input throat size of 38 cm (15 in.) or greater with a pumping speed of 15,000 liters/second or greater and capable of producing an ultimate vacuum better than 10-4 Torr ( 1.33 x10-4 mbar).
(1) The ultimate vacuum is determined at the input of the pump with the input of the pump blocked off.
(2) The pumping speed is determined at the measurement point with nitrogen gas or air.
3.12. Direct current high-power supplies capable of continuously producing, over a time period of 8 hours, 100 V or greater with current output of 500 amps or greater and with current or voltage regulation better than 0.1%.
3.13. High-voltage direct current power supplies capable of continuously producing, over a time period of 8 hours, 20,000 V or greater with current output of 1 amp or greater and with current or voltage regulation better than 0.1%.
3.14. Electromagnetic isotope separators, designed for or equipped with, single or multiple ion sources capable of providing a total ion beam current of 50 mA or greater.
1. This entry will control separators capable of enriching stable isotopes as well as those for uranium. A separator capable of separating the isotopes of lead with a one-mass unit difference is inherently capable of enriching the isotopes of uranium with a three-unit mass difference.
2. This entry includes separators with the ion sources and collectors both in the magnetic field and those configurations in which they are external to the field.
3. A single 50 mA ion source will produce less than 3 g of separated HEU per year from natural abundance feed.
4.HEAVY WATER PRODUCTION PLANT RELATED EQUIPMENT
(Other than the Nuclear Control List Items)
4.1. Specialized packings for use in separating heavy water from ordinary water and made of phosphor bronze mesh (chemically treated to improve wettability) and designed for use in vacuum distillation towers.
4.2. Pumps circulating solutions of diluted or concentrated potassium amide catalyst in liquid ammonia (KNH2/NH3), with all of the following characteristics:
(a) airtight (i.e., hermetically sealed);
(b) for concentrated potassium amide solutions (1% or greater), operating pressure of 1.5 - 60 MPa [15 - 600 atmospheres (atm)]; for dilute potassium amide solutions (less than 1%), operating pressure of 20 - 60 MPa (200 - 600 atm); and
(c) a capacity greater than 8.5 m3/h (5 cubic feet per minute).
4.3. Water-hydrogen sulfide exchange tray columns constructed from fine carbon steel with a diameter of 1.8m or greater, which can operate at nominal pressures of 2 MPa (300 psi) or greater, and internal contractors therefor.
1. For columns which are especially designed or prepared for the production of heavy water.
2. Internal contactors of the columns are segmented trays which have an effective assembled diameter of 1.8 m or greater, are designed to facilitate countercurrent contacting and are constructed of materials resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide/water mixtures. These may be sieve trays, valve trays, bubble cap trays or turbogrid trays.
3. Fine carbon steel in this entry is defined to be steel with the austenitic grain size number of 5 or greater.
4. Materials resistant to corrosion by hydrogen sulfide/water mixtures in this entry are defined to be stainless steels with a carbon content of 0.03% or less.
4.4. Hydrogen-cryogenic distillation columns having all of the following applications:
(a) designed to operate with internal temperatures of -238¡æ (35 K) or less;
(b) designed to operate at internal pressure of 0.5 to 5 MPa (5 to 50 atmospheres);
(c) constructed of fine-grain stainless steels of the 300 series with low sulfur content or equivalent cryogenic and H2 -compatible materials; and
(d) with internal diameters of 1 m or greater and effective lengths of 5 m or greater.
4.5. Ammonia synthesis converters or synthesis units in which the synthesis gas (nitrogen and hydrogen) is withdrawn from an ammonia/hydrogen high-pressure exchange column and the synthesized ammonia is returned to said column.
4.6. Turboexpanders or turboexpander-compressor sets designed for operation below 35 K and a throughput of hrdrogen gas of 1000 kg/hr or greater.
5. IMPLOSION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT EQUIPNFENT
5.1. Flash x-ray Generators or pulsed electron accelerators with peak energy of 500 keV or greater. as follows. except accelerators that are component parts of devices designed for purposes other than electron beam or x-ray radiation (electron microscopy, for example) and those designed for medical purposes:
(a) Having an accelerator peak electron energy of 500 keV or greater but less than 25 MeV and with a figure of merit (K) of 0.25 or greater, where K is defined as:
K=1.7 x 103 V2.65Q,
where V is the peak electron energy in million electron volts and Q is the total accelerated charge in coulombs if the accelerator beam pulse duration is less than or equal to 1¦Ìs, if the acceleration beam pulse duration is greater than 1¦Ìs, Q is the maximum accelerated charge in 1¦Ìs[Q equals the integral of i with respect to t, over the lesser of 1¦Ìs or the time duration of the beam pulse (Q =¡Òidt), where i is beam current in amperes and t is the time in seconds] or,
(b) Having an accelerator peak electron energy of 25 MeV or greater and a peak power greater than 50 MW. [Peak power =(peak potential in volts) x (peak beam current in amperes).]
1. Time duration of the beam pulse - In machines, based on microwave accelerating cavities, the time duration of the beam pulse is the lesser of 1¦Ìs or the duration of the bunched beam packet resulting from one microwave modulator pulse.
2. Peak beam current - In machines based on microwave accelerating cavities, the peak beam current is the average current in the time duration of a bunched beam packet.
5.2. Multistage light gas guns or other high-velocity gun systems (coil, electromagnetic, electrothermal, or other advanced systems) capable of accelerating projectiles to 2 km per second or greater.
5.3. Mechanical rotating mirror cameras, as follows; and specially designed components therefor:
a. Framing cameras with recording rates greater than 225,000 frames per second;
b. Streak cameras with writing speeds greater than 0.5 mm per microsecond.
Technical Note: Components of such cameras include their synchronizing electronics units and rotor assemblies consisting of turbines, mirrors, and bearings.
5.4. Electronic streak and framing cameras and tubes as follows:
(a) Electronic streak cameras capable of 50 ns or less time resolution and streak tubes therefor;
(b) Electronic (or electronically shuttered) framing cameras capable of 50 ns or less frame exposure time;
(c) Framing tubes and solid-state imaging devices for use with cameras controlled in sub-item(b) above, as follows:
(1) proximity focused image intensifier tubes having the photocathode deposited on a transparent conductive coating to decrease photocathode sheet resistance;
(2) gate silicon intensifier target (SIT) vidicon tubes, where a fast system allows gating, the photoelectrons from the photocathode before they impinge on the SIT plate;
(3) Kerr or pockel cell electro-optical shuttering; or
(4) Other framing tubes and solid-state imaging devices having a fast image gating time of less than 50 ns specially designed for cameras controlled by sub-item (b) above.
5.5. Specialized instrumentation for hydrodynamic experiments as follows:
(a) Velocity interferometers for measuring velocities in excess of 1 km per second during time intervals less than 10¦Ìs. (Doppler laser interferometers, etc.);
(b) manganin gauges for pressures greater than 100 kilobars; or
(c) quartz pressure transducers for pressures greater than 100 kilobars.
6. EXPLOSIVES AND RELATED EQUIPMENT
6.1. Detonators and multipoint initiation systems (exploding bridge wire, slapper, etc.)
(a) Electrically driven explosive detonators as follows:
(1) exploding bridge (EB);
(2) exploding bridge wire (EBW);
(3) slapper; and
(4) exploding foil initiators (EFI).
(b) Arrangements using single or multiple detonators designed to nearly simultaneously initiate an explosive surface (over greater than 5000 mm2 ) from a single firing signal (with an initiation timing spread over the surface of less than 2.5¦Ìs).
The detonators of concern all utilize a small electrical conductor (bridge, bridge wire, or foil) that explosively vaporizes when a fast, high-current electrical pulse is passed through it. In nonslapper types, the exploding conductor starts a chemical detonation in a contacting high explosive material such as PETN (pentaerythritoltetranitrate). In slapper detonators, the explosive vaporization of the electrical conductor drives a "flyer" or "slapper" across a gap, and the impact of the slapper on an explosive starts a chemical detonation. The slapper in some designs is driven by magnetic force. The term "exploding foil" detonator may refer to either an EB or a slapper-type detonator. Also, the word "initiator" is sometimes used in place of the word "detonator".
Note: Detonators using only primary explosives, such as lead azide, are not subject to control.
6.2. Electronic components for firing sets (switching devices and pulse discharge capacitors)
6.2.1. Switching devices
(a) Cold-cathode tubes (including gas krytron tubes and vacuum sprytron tubes), whether gas filled or not, operating similarly to a spark gap, containing three or more electrodes, and having all of the following characteristics:
(1) Anode peak voltage rating of 2500 V or more;
(2) Anode peak current rating of 100 A or more;
(3) Anode delay time of 10¦Ìs or less; and
(b) Triggered spark-gaps having an anode delay time of 15¦Ìs or less and rated for a peak current of 500 A or more;
(c) Modules or assemblies with a fast switching function having all of the following characteristics:
(1) Anode peak voltage rating greater than 2000 V;
(2) anode peak current rating of 500 A or more; and
(3) turn-on time of 1¦Ìs or less.
6.2.2. Capacitors with the following characteristics:
(a) Voltage rating greater than 1.4 kV, energy storage greater than 10 J, capacitance greater than 0.5 ¦ÌF, and series inductance less than 50 nH, or
(b) Voltage rating greater than 750 V. capacitance greater than 0.25 ¦ÌF, and series inductance less than 10 nH.
6.3. Firing sets and equivalent high-current pulse generators (for controlled detonators), as follows:
(a) Explosive detonator firing sets designed to drive multiple controlled detonators covered under item 6. 1. above;
(b) Modular electrical pulse Generators (pursers) designed for portable, mobile, or ruggedized-use (including xenon flash-lamp drivers) having all the following characteristics:
(1) capable of delivering their energy in less than 15 ¦Ìs;
(2) having an output greater than 100 A;
(3) having a rise time of less than 10 ¦Ìs into loads of less than 40 ohms.
(Rise time is defined as the time interval from 10% to 90% current amplitude when driving a resistive load);
(4) enclosed in a dust-tight enclosure;
(5) no dimension greater than 25.4 cm (10 in.);
(6) weight less than 25 kg (55 lb.); and
(7) specified for use over an extended temperature range (-50 ¡æ to 100 ¡æ) or specified as suitable for aerospace use.
6.4. High explosives or substances or mixtures containing more than 2% of any of the following:
(a) Cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX);
(b) Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX);
(c) Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB);
(d) Any explosive with a crystal density greater than 1.8 g/cm3 and having, a detonation velocity greater then 8000 m/s; or
(e) Hexanitrostilbene (HNS).
7. NUCLEAR TESTING EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS
7.1. Photomultiplier tubes with a photocathode area of greater than 20 cm2 having an anode pulse rise time of less than 1 ns.
7.2. High-speed pulse generators with output voltages greater than 6 V into a less than 55 ohm resistive load, and with pulse transition times less than 500 ps (defined as the time interval between 10% and 90% voltage amplitude).
8.1. Neutron Generator systems, including tubes, designed for operation without an external vacuum system and utilizing electrostatic acceleration to induce a tritium-deuterium nuclear reaction.
8.2. Equipment related to nuclear material handling and processing and to nuclear reactors as follows:
8.2.1. Remote manipulators that can be used to provide remote actions in radiochemical separation operations and hot cells, as follows:
a. Having a capability of penetrating 0.6 m or more of hot cell wall ('through-the-wall' operation); or
b. Having a capability of bridging over the top of a hot cell wall with a thickness of 0.6m or more ('over-the-wall' operation).
Note: Remote manipulators provide translation of human operator actions to a remote operating arm and terminal fixture. They may be of a'master/slave'type or operated by joystick or keypad.
8.2.2. High-density (lead glass or other) radiation shielding windows greater than 0.09 m2 on cold area and with a density greater than 3 g/cm3 and a thickness of 100 mm or greater; and specially designed frames therefor;
8.2.3. Radiation-hardened TV cameras, or lenses therefor, specially designed or rated as radiation hardened to withstand greater than 5 x 104 grays (Silicon) (5 x 106 rad (Silicon)) without operational degradation.
8.3. Tritium, tritium compounds, or mixtures containing tritium in which the ratio of tritium to hydrogen by atoms exceeds 1 part in 1000 and products or devices containing any of the foregoing;
A product or device containing not more than 1.48 x 103 GBq (40 Ci) of tritium in any form.
8.4. Tritium facilities, plants and equipment, as follows:
1.Facilities or plants for the production, recovery, extraction, concentration or handling of tritium;
2.Equipment for tritium facilities or plants, as follows:
(a) Hydrogen or helium refrigeration units capable of cooling to 23 K (-250 ¡æ) or less, with heat removal capacity greater than 150 watts;
(b) Hydrogen isotope storage and purification systems using metal hydrides as the storage, or purification medium.
8.5. Platinized catalysts specially designed or prepared for promoting the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen and water for the recovery of tritium from heavy water or for the production of heavy water.
8.6. Helium-3 or helium isotopically enriched in the helium-3 isotope, mixtures containing helium-3, and products or devices containing any of the foregoing;
A product or device containing less than 1 g of helium-3.
8.7. Alpha-emitting, radionuclides having an alpha half-life of 10 days or greater but less than 200 years, compounds or mixtures containing any of these radionuclides with a total alpha activity of 1 curie per kilogram (37 GBq/kg) or greater, and products or devices containing any of the foregoing;
A product or device containing less than 3.7 GBq (100 millicuries) of alpha activity.
8.8. Lithium isotope separation facilities, plants and equipment, as follows:
1.Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes;
2.Equipment for the separation of lithium isotopes, as follows:
a. Packed liquid-liquid exchange columns specialty designed for lithium amalgams;
b. Mercury and/or lithium amalgam pumps;
c. Lithium amalgam electrolysis cells;
d. Evaporators for concentrated lithium hydroxide solution.